By Kevin M. Miller, MD
Offers present functions of optical phenomena, together with the optical concerns on the topic of foundations of lasers, spectacles, IOLs, and refractive surgical procedure and the layout, becoming, and problems of touch lenses. additionally lined are optics of the human eye, the layout and use of ophthalmic tools, easy thoughts of geometrical optics and the present method of low imaginative and prescient administration and imaginative and prescient rehabilitation.
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Additional resources for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)
Principles and Clinical Applications CHAPTER 1: Physical Optics. 19 that energy is work, and power is the rate at which work is done. One joule = I watt x 1 second, or 1 W = 1 J/sec. The tissue effect is then determined by the focal point spot size, which determines energy density and irradiance (or, less properly stated, "power density"). In ophthalmic lasers, spot size is conventionally given as the diameter. lm spot size has an area of IT(25 x 10-4)2cm2, or about 2 x 10-5cm2. In an ophthalmic laser with a continuous beam of light, such as argon and krypton, the control panel meter gives the power in watts; in a pulsed laser, such as the Nd:YAG, the meter reading gives the energy per pulse in joules.
TIR never occurs when light travels from lower to higher index, so light enters the contact lens and is reflected from the mirror. TIR does not occur at the front surface of the contact lens because the angle of incidence is less than the critical angle. 6° From trigonometry, we can estimate the angle at which light rays from the trabecular meshwork strike the air-tear interface. The situation is illustrated in Figure 2-29 with average anatomic dimensions. The effect of the back surface of the cornea is ignored because it has relatively little power and this is only a rough calculation.
The laser cavity acts as an optical resonator. Mirrors are placed at each end of a beam path to reflect light back and forth through the active medium, in which pumping maintains a population inversion (Fig 1-14). Each time the light wave resonates through the active medium, the total coherent light energy is increased through stimulated emission. Spontaneous emission, which occurs randomly in all directions, rarely strikes a mirror and therefore is not amplified. The last element in this schematic laser design is a mechanism for releasing some of the oscillating laser light from the cavity.
2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009) by Kevin M. Miller, MD